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Archive for October, 2007

Death of the condom

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

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There was once a time, in the not too distant past, when there wasn’t a gay social function — whether held at a club, community center or festival — that didn’t stock condoms seemingly by the truckload.
There was once a time, in the not too distant past, when many gay men — older men, teens, even gay porn stars — wouldn’t think about having unprotected sex, particularly with casual sex.

Times have changed.
Jay Dempsey runs the P.O.O.L. program for gay men at AID Atlanta, and begins each new group by asking attendees whether condom use is still the sexual norm among local gay men.

“The answer’s always no,” Dempsey said.
The change in gay men’s views toward condoms is often associated with the onset of highly effective anti-AIDS drugs in the mid-’90s, when the perception of the disease transformed from an automatic death sentence to an almost invisible, manageable illness. Experts agree that no longer seeing friends suffer or die from AIDS has affected how gay men approach safer sex, but other factors have changed as well.

The condom-friendly sex education of the ’90s has been replaced wholesale by the Bush administration’s devotion to abstinence-until-marriage, while, simultaneously, marriage has become a legal impossibility for most gay and lesbian Americans. And as gay people fight for rights and acceptance from society at-large, many continue to struggle with self acceptance, tensions with their families and creating healthy intimate relationships.

“If you have this feeling of yourself as not being worthy, perhaps you don’t really care about yourself, you don’t care about your health, and so you might not use a condom,” said Celia Lescano, a researcher at Brown University who studies condom use among young people.

And then there are gay men who believe wearing a condom is futile. “There’s a deep linkage in the minds of some gay people that if you’re gay, you’ll inevitably get HIV,” said Donna Futterman, professor of clinical pediatrics and director of the Adolescent AIDS program at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore in New York.

’OUTSMART THE SYSTEM’

Colton Fitzgerald thought he could navigate HIV/AIDS as successfully as he navigated being an openly gay teenager in Loganville, Ga., a small town of about 9,000 residents located 35 miles east of Atlanta.

Before and after he came out as gay at age 13, Fitzgerald was bombarded with messages from his family, school and church about homosexuality being dirty and sinful.

“Where I grew up, I always heard gay is wrong, and all gays have HIV,” said Fitzgerald, who is now 18. But Fitzgerald persevered as the only gay teenager at his high school, and finally discovered a more accepting environment when he attended his first Atlanta Gay Pride festival in June 2005.

As he began frequenting gay venues and indulging in promiscuous sex, Fitzgerald developed a crude HIV-detection system that he thought would keep him safe. His screening process led him to start a relationship and have unprotected sex with a boy he met at a birthday party in early June 2006.
Fitzgerald had never seen the young man before, which he interpreted as a good sign.

“I figured he was somewhat of a new person who hadn’t been around the block,” said Fitzgerald, who had a three-and-a-half week relationship with the young man. Three months later, on Sept. 17, 2006, Fitzgerald tested HIV-positive at age 17. “I never felt like I was Superman, I just felt like I could outsmart the system,” he said. “I always felt like it definitely could happen to me, but I thought I could figure out a certain method of how it was dispersed by people.

“It’s definitely something I was not expecting, especially this early in my life,” Fitzgerald added.

The HIV rate for gay and bisexual men 13-24 years old declined by 30 percent from 1994 to 1998, but skyrocketed 41 percent from 1999 to 2003, according to a 10-year analysis of HIV diagnosis among youth ages 13-24 conducted by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.

“The study found that HIV diagnosis among young females declined steadily from 1994-2003 in every racial/ethnic and age group,” said CDC spokesperson Jennifer Ruth. “Among young males, however, an initial decline was offset by significant increases in more recent years, driven primarily by increases among young adult [ages 20-24] men who have sex with men.”

The CDC notes that although HIV diagnoses are on the rise among gay youth, studies “indicate that teens are making more responsible decisions about sex,” with more teens delaying sex, or using a condom more often.

In a June 2006 CDC report, 53 percent of gay men ages 18-24 who engaged in anal sex said they didn’t use condoms with their primary sex partner, and 31 percent said they didn’t use condoms with casual partners. Both of those percentages were the lowest of any age group, with 63 percent of gay men over 55 not using condoms with their primary sex partners, and 42 percent not using condoms with casual partners.

’WHY DO WE NEED TO WEAR CONDOMS?’

The numbers suggesting steady condom use among gay youth don’t harmonize with 23-year-old Kelvin Barlow’s experiences in Atlanta. “A lot of my partners are not thinking about condoms,” said Barlow, who was diagnosed with HIV at age 17. “I think I’m usually the first one to bring [condom use] up [in sexual situations]. Sometimes my partners know my status and sometimes they don’t — they just want to jump in the bed.”

Barlow believes a combination of ignorance and emptiness led to his seroconversion. “At that time I was the dumbest thing walking — I thought I was invincible and could do whatever and not get ill,” said Barlow, who was 15 and dating a 35-year-old man. “I thought I was in this relationship with this man who loved me, why do we need to wear condoms?”

Fear of disturbing a relationship — either by making a partner suspect cheating, or losing intimacy — is a common barrier to youth using a condom, said Lescano of Brown University, whose research primarily focuses on youth with severe stress, anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. Teens may also avoid using condoms if they don’t believe they’re available, comfortable or socially acceptable, Lescano said. Lescano’s research found that “psychological distress during sexual situations may precipitate risk behavior,” and with gay teens experiencing higher levels of distress than their peers, Lescano speculates negotiating condom use in same-sex relationships can be even more difficult.

Like many gay youth, Barlow was numb to the mental anguish he endured as a gay youth, substituting inner pain with sex. “They may not do it consciously, but unconsciously you’re going out, looking for some … validation,” Barlow said. “We’re so broken apart because of society, and it’s taken a lot of validation away.”

Latex condoms have been around since 1912, and have been the primary weapon to in the fight against HIV/AIDS for more than 25 years. Companies like Coca-Cola launch new advertising campaigns every few years to capture new generations of youth, while the wear-a-condom-to-avoid-AIDS message hasn’t been modified in decades, Children’s Hospital’s Futterman said.

“Unless we give each generation the message with the same kind of passion, intensity and updatedness, [youth] are not going to get it, they’re not going to believe it’s for them,” said Futterman, author of “Lesbian & Gay Youth Care & Counseling.” HIV-prevention strategies must address “the interaction of so many forces” that prevent gay youth from using a condom, including various mental health stressors, Futterman said.

“We can’t isolate one factor [that causes unsafe sex] and so our approaches have to be multi-factoral,” said Futterman, who added that a societal taboo about condoms prevents them from appearing in commercials, movies, music and all other mass media. “If condoms are just in the public health sphere, and not in the real world sphere, why should young people think condoms are for them?” Futterman said.

SEX MIS-EDUCATION

Condoms also rarely appear in sex education classes across the country, particularly in Georgia. A growing number of states are beginning to refuse federal funding for sex education because they don’t want their content restricted by President Bush’s abstinence-only mandates, with New York joining 11 other states last month in rejecting federal abstinence funding. The Georgia Department of Education adhered to an abstinence-until-marriage policy for sex education classes even before Bush took office, with local school boards and parents having to “develop procedures that come into compliance” with the department’s guidelines, said Matt Cardoza, a spokesperson for the Department of Education.

“Of course, the distribution of condoms, I guess, goes against what the [department] policy says,” Cardoza said. Sex education classes in Loganville were vague and useless when Fitzgerald was in school.
“During our sex education, they, No. 1, never talked about gay sex, and No. 2, they never talked about having sex and using condoms,” Fitzgerald said.

With abstinence-until-marriage messages contradicted by constitutional same-sex marriage bans, gay youth “are basically told their very existence is not accepted,” said Futterman. Even sex education programs that talk explicitly about sex may not resonate with gay students, Lescano said.
“Kids who self-identify as gay, and who are out and know that, do need interventions that are specific to them,” Lescano said.

AID Atlanta works with schools through its “Ask Us” program to bring young HIV-positive speakers to talk with their peers. “If a young person can deliver their story to young people and say, ‘This is what it’s like dealing with this disease — yes, I may look healthy but this is what I deal with,’ that in itself is a powerful prevention tool,” Dempsey said.

But despite condoms not being in vogue, “until we discover a better tool, this is the tool we have and must use,” Futterman said.


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Zimbabwe in Line to Provide 140,000 HIV-Infected People With HIV Meds

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

October 29, 2007

Zimbabwe could meet its target of providing 140,000 HIV-positive people with access to no-cost antiretroviral drugs by the end of the year, Owen Mugurungi, head of the Zimbabwean government’s HIV/AIDS unit, said on Tuesday at a two-day workshop on drug access issues in the country, the Herald/AllAfrica.com reports (Herald/AllAfrica.com, 10/26).

The country’s efforts to increase access to antiretrovirals have been delayed by a shortage of foreign currency, which has increased poverty levels and raised inflation by 3,700%. More than 3,000 people die of AIDS-related illnesses weekly in the country, and 70% of hospital admissions in Zimbabwe are HIV/AIDS-related. According to Zimbabwe Health and Child Welfare Minister David Parirenyatwa, at least 300,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country are in need of antiretrovirals (Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, 9/12). According to Mugurungi, about 90,000 HIV-positive people have access to no-cost antiretrovirals under the government’s treatment program.

"More than 80% of our target population" already has antiretroviral access, and if the country doubles its "efforts in the next two months, that means [Zimbabwe] might surpass" the 140,000 target, Mugurungi said. The country is among other African nations that believe a 100% universal access to antiretrovirals is unrealistic, Mugurungi said, adding that Zimbabwe instead aims to provide 75% of HIV-positive people with treatment access. Raymond Yekeye, operations director for the National AIDS Council, agreed and said that Zimbabwe now is looking to fulfill district-level treatment targets (Herald/AllAfrica.com, 10/26).

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One-Third of People With TB in U.S. Unaware of HIV Status, MMWR Report Says

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

October 29, 2007

Nearly one-third of people living with tuberculosis in the U.S. are unaware of their HIV status, according to a study published Friday in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Reuters reports (Dunham, Reuters, 10/25).

The study examined data from the National TB Surveillance System from 1993 to 2005 for 49 states and Washington, D.C. According to the study, reporting of HIV status among people living with TB increased from 35% in 1993 to 68% in 2003 and leveled off during 2004 and 2005 (Marks et al., MMWR, 10/26). Nine percent of all people with active TB in the U.S. tested positive for HIV in 2005. Thirty-one percent of those with TB were unaware of their HIV status in 2005 because they refused testing or were not offered a test, compared with 65% of people living with TB in 1993 (Reuters, 10/25). Groups of people living with TB at an increased risk of acquiring HIV include injection-drug users, noninjection-drug users, homeless people, non-Hispanic blacks, prison inmates and alcohol abusers, according to the report (MMWR, 10/26).

In addition, the report noted that nearly two-thirds of people living with both HIV and TB were black. One in six black TB patients was HIV-positive, compared with one in 20 HIV-positive white TB patients, the report said. "High rates of both HIV infection and TB disease among non-Hispanic blacks emphasize the need in this population to prevent, diagnose early and provide access to care for both conditions," the report said.

According to CDC epidemiologist and report author Suzanne Marks, "HIV increases TB progression, and TB increases HIV progression." She added that the diseases "result in a synergy that can be deadly." The agency recommends routine HIV testing among all people living with TB, according to Reuters. People with HIV/TB coinfection are five times more likely to die during TB treatment than patients who are HIV-negative, according to CDC. "Increased promotion of routine HIV testing and rapid HIV tests might increase acceptability of testing, which would allow health care providers to know the HIV status of a greater percentage of TB patients and enable them to provide optimal care," the report said.

According to CDC, 13,779 TB cases were reported in the U.S. in 2006 — a decrease of 3% compared with 2005. Of the cases reported in 2006, 57% involved people born outside the country. There were 646 deaths from TB in the U.S. in 2005, CDC said (Reuters, 10/25).

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Clinton Signs Pledge To Commit To Fight Against HIV

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

October 30, 2007

Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-N.Y.), who is running for the Democratic presidential nomination, recently signed a pledge to commit to investing $50 billion by 2013 to fight HIV/AIDS domestically and worldwide, the New York Times reports. Clinton also plans to issue a formal policy on the disease, according to the Times (Seelye, "The Caucus," New York Times, 10/26).

The Global AIDS Alliance Fund and other groups have called on U.S. presidential candidates to sign the pledge, which asks candidates to commit $50 billion to HIV/AIDS efforts. New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson (D) was the first candidate to sign the pledge. On the groups’ Web site — 08stopaids.org — there is a citizen’s pledge that calls on voters to urge the next U.S. president to "create, support and fund a comprehensive plan to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic" (Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, 10/22).

According to the Times, ACT UP, an HIV/AIDS advocacy coalition, had been planning a demonstration on Tuesday in Philadelphia — where the Democratic candidates are scheduled to participate in a debate — to protest Clinton because she had not signed the pledge. Clinton signed the pledge shortly after being contacted by the Times. According to a statement from Clinton’s campaign, she has "been working on a formal AIDS policy that she will be unveiling in the near future." The statement added that Clinton "already supports investing $50 billion over the next five years to fight global AIDS and advocates a comprehensive approach to fighting AIDS both here and abroad."

According to the Times, former Sen. John Edwards (D-N.C.) and Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.), both of whom are running for the Democratic presidential nomination, have not signed the pledge. Kaytee Riek — a member of ACT UP and Health GAP, which is co-sponsoring the Tuesday demonstration — said the demonstration originally had been directed toward Clinton rather than the other candidates because "she’s the front-runner," even though she has had a "spectacular" record on HIV/AIDS policy. Riek added that because Clinton has signed the pledge, the focus of the demonstration likely will shift to encouraging all candidates to discuss HIV/AIDS during their campaigns.

Edwards was the first candidate to issue a comprehensive, $50 billion HIV/AIDS plan, the Times reports. Obama has said that if elected, he would increase foreign spending to $50 billion annually for several projects, including increased treatment access for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Obama in his "millennium development goals" said he would "dedicate as much funding to HIV/AIDS as possible … to ensure a comprehensive fight against this global pandemic" ("The Caucus," New York Times, 10/26).

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Some HIV-Positive People Taking Longer to Initiate Treatment, Study Says

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

October 30, 2007

Some HIV-positive people in key demographic groups do not seek treatment any sooner than they did in the past, and some people now take longer to initiate treatment, according to a study published in the Nov. 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, United Press International reports (United Press International, 10/27).

For the study, Jeanne Keruly and Richard Moore of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine analyzed data of 3,300 HIV-positive people seeking treatment from the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service from 1990 to 2006. The data were examined as a whole and as demographic subsets that included gender, race, injection drug users, heterosexuals and men who have sex with men. The researchers examined the amount of time between HIV diagnosis and the time when a person sought treatment. They also looked at the HIV-positive person’s immune status at the onset of care.

The study found that among all men, the average length between diagnosis and seeking care was 270 days at the beginning of the study, decreasing to 183 days by the end. White men and MSM tended to seek care sooner after being diagnosed with HIV, the study found. Women’s times to seek treatment after diagnosis remained fairly constant throughout the study. Among IDUs, times to seek treatment after diagnosis increased from an average of 378 days at the beginning of the study to 630 days at the conclusion, according to the study.

People in all demographic categories, with the exception of MSM, demonstrated a trend of increased disease progression — likely indicating that people are receiving HIV tests later after they contracted the virus than in the past — the study found. The level of progression put the participants at an increased risk of poorer clinical outcomes from antiretroviral therapy than if they had presented earlier for care. In response to the findings, the researchers called on Maryland to implement new strategies to provide earlier HIV testing and referral to HIV care and treatment (Infectious Diseases Society of America release, 10/25).

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Pharmacies, Drug Wholesaler File Lawsuit Against Abbott Over Norvir Price

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

October 30, 2007

Four pharmacy chains and one pharmaceutical wholesaler on Monday filed a lawsuit against Abbott Laboratories over the price of its antiretroviral drug Norvir, the Wall Street Journal reports. In the suit, the companies — Safeway, Walgreen, Kroger, Supervalu’s New Albertson’s and American Sales — allege that Abbott "unlawfully extended its monopoly position as the sole provider of Norvir" by increasing its price in 2003 (Carreyrou, Wall Street Journal, 10/30).

Abbott in December 2003 quadrupled the per-patient wholesale price of Norvir, which is known generically as ritonavir. Norvir is used primarily as a booster for other protease inhibitors, such as Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Reyataz and Merck’s Crixivan. Abbott exempted Medicaid, Medicare and state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs from the price increase and announced it would expand its patient assistance program. The cost of Norvir increased from $51.30 for 30 100-milligram capsules to $257.10 for 30 100-mg capsules, or by $5,000 more annually.

Previously undisclosed documents and e-mails reviewed by the Journal indicate that executives at Abbott attempted to diminish the attraction of Norvir by increasing the price of the drug. According to the documents and e-mails, Abbott in the fall of 2003 became concerned about new competition to its antiretroviral Kaletra, and the company’s executives began discussing ways to decrease the popularity of Norvir as a way to force HIV-positive people to stop using rival drugs and turn to Kaletra.

Abbott has said that it did not increase the price of Norvir to promote Kaletra and that the increase did not affect other drug companies. According to Abbott, the price increase was intended to better show Norvir’s medical value.

Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan (D) has been investigating Norvir’s price increase for three years and has said that it might violate the state’s consumer fraud law. In addition, two HIV-positive people and the Service Employees International Union’s Health and Welfare Fund have filed a lawsuit in U.S. district court in Oakland, Calif. (Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, 1/3). That trial is scheduled to start in June, according to the Journal. Abbott spokesperson Scott Stoffel recently said the lawsuit filed on Monday is without merit (Wall Street Journal, 10/30).

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Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

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Pharmacies, Drug Wholesaler File Lawsuit Against Abbott Over Norvir Price

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

 

October 30, 2007

Four pharmacy chains and one pharmaceutical wholesaler on Monday filed a lawsuit against Abbott Laboratories over the price of its antiretroviral drug Norvir, the Wall Street Journal reports. In the suit, the companies — Safeway, Walgreen, Kroger, Supervalu’s New Albertson’s and American Sales — allege that Abbott “unlawfully extended its monopoly position as the sole provider of Norvir” by increasing its price in 2003 (Carreyrou, Wall Street Journal, 10/30).
Abbott in December 2003 quadrupled the per-patient wholesale price of Norvir, which is known generically as ritonavir. Norvir is used primarily as a booster for other protease inhibitors, such as Bristol-Myers Squibb‘s Reyataz and Merck‘s Crixivan. Abbott exempted Medicaid, Medicare and state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs from the price increase and announced it would expand its patient assistance program. The cost of Norvir increased from $51.30 for 30 100-milligram capsules to $257.10 for 30 100-mg capsules, or by $5,000 more annually.
Previously undisclosed documents and e-mails reviewed by the Journal indicate that executives at Abbott attempted to diminish the attraction of Norvir by increasing the price of the drug. According to the documents and e-mails, Abbott in the fall of 2003 became concerned about new competition to its antiretroviral Kaletra, and the company’s executives began discussing ways to decrease the popularity of Norvir as a way to force HIV-positive people to stop using rival drugs and turn to Kaletra.
Abbott has said that it did not increase the price of Norvir to promote Kaletra and that the increase did not affect other drug companies. According to Abbott, the price increase was intended to better show Norvir’s medical value.
Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan (D) has been investigating Norvir’s price increase for three years and has said that it might violate the state’s consumer fraud law. In addition, two HIV-positive people and the Service Employees International Union‘s Health and Welfare Fund have filed a lawsuit in U.S. district court in Oakland, Calif. (Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, 1/3). That trial is scheduled to start in June, according to the Journal. Abbott spokesperson Scott Stoffel recently said the lawsuit filed on Monday is without merit (Wall Street Journal, 10/30).

Source: Pharmacies, Drug Wholesaler File Lawsuit Against Abbott Over Norvir Price – The Body

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Clinton Signs Pledge To Commit To Fight Against HIV

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

 

October 30, 2007

Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-N.Y.), who is running for the Democratic presidential nomination, recently signed a pledge to commit to investing $50 billion by 2013 to fight HIV/AIDS domestically and worldwide, the New York Times reports. Clinton also plans to issue a formal policy on the disease, according to the Times (Seelye, “The Caucus,” New York Times, 10/26).
The Global AIDS Alliance Fund and other groups have called on U.S. presidential candidates to sign the pledge, which asks candidates to commit $50 billion to HIV/AIDS efforts. New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson (D) was the first candidate to sign the pledge. On the groups’ Web site — 08stopaids.org — there is a citizen’s pledge that calls on voters to urge the next U.S. president to “create, support and fund a comprehensive plan to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic” (Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, 10/22).
According to the Times, ACT UP, an HIV/AIDS advocacy coalition, had been planning a demonstration on Tuesday in Philadelphia — where the Democratic candidates are scheduled to participate in a debate — to protest Clinton because she had not signed the pledge. Clinton signed the pledge shortly after being contacted by the Times. According to a statement from Clinton’s campaign, she has “been working on a formal AIDS policy that she will be unveiling in the near future.” The statement added that Clinton “already supports investing $50 billion over the next five years to fight global AIDS and advocates a comprehensive approach to fighting AIDS both here and abroad.”
According to the Times, former Sen. John Edwards (D-N.C.) and Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.), both of whom are running for the Democratic presidential nomination, have not signed the pledge. Kaytee Riek — a member of ACT UP and Health GAP, which is co-sponsoring the Tuesday demonstration — said the demonstration originally had been directed toward Clinton rather than the other candidates because “she’s the front-runner,” even though she has had a “spectacular” record on HIV/AIDS policy. Riek added that because Clinton has signed the pledge, the focus of the demonstration likely will shift to encouraging all candidates to discuss HIV/AIDS during their campaigns.
Edwards was the first candidate to issue a comprehensive, $50 billion HIV/AIDS plan, the Times reports. Obama has said that if elected, he would increase foreign spending to $50 billion annually for several projects, including increased treatment access for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Obama in his “millennium development goals” said he would “dedicate as much funding to HIV/AIDS as possible … to ensure a comprehensive fight against this global pandemic” (“The Caucus,” New York Times, 10/26).

Source: Clinton Signs Pledge To Commit To Fight Against HIV – The Body

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Some HIV-Positive People Taking Longer to Initiate Treatment, Study Says

Posted by pozlife on October 30, 2007

 

October 30, 2007

Some HIV-positive people in key demographic groups do not seek treatment any sooner than they did in the past, and some people now take longer to initiate treatment, according to a study published in the Nov. 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, United Press International reports (United Press International, 10/27).
For the study, Jeanne Keruly and Richard Moore of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine analyzed data of 3,300 HIV-positive people seeking treatment from the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service from 1990 to 2006. The data were examined as a whole and as demographic subsets that included gender, race, injection drug users, heterosexuals and men who have sex with men. The researchers examined the amount of time between HIV diagnosis and the time when a person sought treatment. They also looked at the HIV-positive person’s immune status at the onset of care.
The study found that among all men, the average length between diagnosis and seeking care was 270 days at the beginning of the study, decreasing to 183 days by the end. White men and MSM tended to seek care sooner after being diagnosed with HIV, the study found. Women’s times to seek treatment after diagnosis remained fairly constant throughout the study. Among IDUs, times to seek treatment after diagnosis increased from an average of 378 days at the beginning of the study to 630 days at the conclusion, according to the study.
People in all demographic categories, with the exception of MSM, demonstrated a trend of increased disease progression — likely indicating that people are receiving HIV tests later after they contracted the virus than in the past — the study found. The level of progression put the participants at an increased risk of poorer clinical outcomes from antiretroviral therapy than if they had presented earlier for care. In response to the findings, the researchers called on Maryland to implement new strategies to provide earlier HIV testing and referral to HIV care and treatment (Infectious Diseases Society of America release, 10/25).

Source: Some HIV-Positive People Taking Longer to Initiate Treatment, Study Says – The Body

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